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The Mobilise Glossary

Are you struggling to understand telecom jargon? Don't worry, you're not alone. Say goodbye to confusion and hello to clarity with our glossary.

We've compiled commonly used acronyms and terminology, making it easier than ever to understand and navigate the language of telecoms.

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AI - Artificial Intelligence

AI refers to the simulation of human intelligence in computer systems. It involves the development of algorithms and models that enable machines to perform tasks typically requiring human intelligence, such as learning from data, recognizing patterns, making decisions, and solving problems.

In telecoms, AI technology can be used for network optimisation, predictive maintenance, customer service automation, and personalised marketing. For example, AI-powered chatbots can provide automated customer support, AI algorithms can analyse network data to identify and resolve issues proactively, and AI-driven analytics can help telecom companies understand customer behaviour and preferences.


Ancillary Product/Service

Ancillary products or services are secondary offerings that complement or support the core product/service, providing additional value to customers or enhancing their experience. While not essential for the core functionality of the product/service, ancillary offerings can contribute to customer satisfaction, differentiation, and revenue generation.

For example, a mobile network operator may offer digital entertainment streaming services, such as Netflix or Spotify, as add-ons to provide additional entertainment options to customers beyond basic internet access.


API - Application Programming Interface

An API, or Application Programming Interface, is a set of rules and protocols that allows different software applications to communicate with each other. It defines how software components should interact, making it easier for developers to integrate systems and share data or functionality between them. APIs are essential for building modern software applications and enabling them to work together seamlessly.

AR - Augmented Reality

AR, or Augmented Reality, is a technology that overlays digital information or virtual objects onto the real-world environment, enhancing the user's perception of reality. In telecoms, AR can be used to provide interactive experiences and valuable information to users through their mobile devices or AR-enabled glasses.

ARPU - Average Revenue Per User

ARPU is a key performance indicator (KPI) used in the telecommunications industry to measure the average revenue generated by each customer over a specific period, typically monthly or annually. ARPU is calculated by dividing the total revenue generated by a telecom operator from a particular service (such as mobile voice, data, or value-added services) by the total number of subscribers using that service during the same period.

ARPU is an important metric for telecom operators as it provides insights into their revenue-generating capabilities and customer spending patterns. It helps operators track changes in revenue over time, evaluate the effectiveness of pricing strategies, and identify opportunities for upselling or cross-selling additional services to customers. Additionally, ARPU can be used to benchmark performance against competitors and assess the overall health of the business.


BSS - Business Support Systems

BSS, or Business Support Systems, are a set of software and processes used by telecommunications companies to support various business functions, such as billing, customer management, and revenue assurance.


CAGR - Compound Annual Growth Rate

It's a measure used to calculate the average annual growth rate of an investment, business metric, or economic indicator over a specified period of time. In telecoms, these metrics can include the number of subscribers, revenue, data usage, or any other key performance indicators relevant to telecom businesses.

CAGR helps assess the industry's growth trajectory by providing a standardised measure that accounts for compounding effects, which aids in the forecasting of future trends, evaluating investment opportunities, and comparing the performance of different telecom companies or segments over time.


CapEx - Capital Expenditure

CapEx refers to the funds a company spends to acquire, upgrade, or maintain physical assets such as property, equipment, or infrastructure. It represents investments made by the company to support its growth, improve operational efficiency, or enhance its competitive position in the market.

CDR - Call Detail Record

It's a data record generated by a telecommunications network for each telephone call or communication session. A CDR contains detailed information about the call, including the caller's phone number, the recipient's phone number, the start and end times of the call, the duration of the call, and any associated charges or fees.

Telecommunications companies use CDRs for billing, network optimisation, and monitoring call activity. They provide valuable insights into call patterns, usage trends, and network performance, helping operators manage their networks effectively and provide high-quality services to customers.



Connectivity refers to the ability of devices, systems, or networks to communicate and exchange data. It enables seamless interaction between various entities, such as computers, smartphones, and IoT devices, over wired or wireless networks. It facilitates collaboration, data transmission, and functionality across different platforms and locations, powering modern digital ecosystems and services.

Core Product/Service

The core product or service is the primary offering that forms the foundation of a company's business. It typically addresses the core needs or requirements of the target market and serves as the main reason for customers to engage with the company.

For example, a mobile network operator's core product is the provision of voice and data connectivity to its subscribers, allowing them to make calls, send messages, and access the internet using their mobile devices.


CRM - Customer Relationship Management

CRM constitutes a set of strategies, processes, and technologies used by companies to manage and analyse interactions with their customers throughout the customer lifecycle.

CRM systems in telecom enable companies to store, organise and centralise customer data, including contact information, service history, preferences, and interactions across various channels. Allowing them to understand their customers' needs, preferences and behaviours. And to tailor their products, services, and marketing efforts accordingly.

CRM systems in telecom typically include features such as customer segmentation, lead management, sales automation, service ticketing, marketing automation, and analytics. These tools help telecom companies improve customer satisfaction, increase retention rates, streamline sales and service processes, and identify opportunities for upselling and cross-selling.


CSP - Communications Service Provider

A CSP is a company or organisation that offers various telecommunications services to consumers, businesses, and other entities. These services may include voice calling, messaging (SMS, MMS), internet access, data transmission, and multimedia services. CSPs typically operate and manage the infrastructure required to deliver these services, such as cellular networks, fixed-line networks, and internet backbone infrastructure.

They play a crucial role in enabling communication and connectivity for individuals and businesses, offering a wide range of services to meet diverse needs in the telecommunications industry.


Customer Journey

It's the complete sum of experiences that customers go through when interacting with a company or brand, from initial awareness and consideration to post-purchase support and advocacy. It encompasses all touchpoints and interactions across various channels and stages of the customer lifecycle, including marketing, sales, customer service, and retention.

CXD - Cusomer Experience Design

It is the process of creating and optimising the interactions and touchpoints between a customer and a company across various channels and platforms to ensure a positive and seamless experience. It involves understanding customers' needs, preferences, expectations and designing products, services, and processes to meet those needs effectively.

CXD encompasses a holistic approach in the design of the entire customer journey, from initial awareness and consideration to purchase, usage, and post-sales support. It integrates elements of user experience (UX), service design, and marketing to create meaningful and memorable experiences that drive customer satisfaction, loyalty, and advocacy.

The goal of CXD is to align business objectives with customer needs, ultimately delivering value and building long-term relationships with customers.


Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is a comprehensive, strategic approach to reimagining and reinventing an organisation's business processes, operations, products, services, and culture using digital technologies. It involves fundamentally changing how an organisation operates, delivers value, and interacts with customers, employees, and partners to adapt to the digital age and capitalise on new opportunities.

Digital transformation encompasses a wide range of initiatives, including adopting new digital business models, embracing data-driven decision-making, fostering a culture of innovation and agility, and leveraging emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and blockchain. The goal of digital transformation is to drive sustainable growth, competitive advantage, and customer-centricity in a rapidly evolving digital landscape.



"Digital-first" refers to a strategic approach or mindset where digital technologies and channels take precedence over traditional methods in business operations, processes, and customer interactions. In a digital-first approach, organisations prioritise digital platforms, tools, and processes to deliver products, services, and experiences to customers.

It includes leveraging digital channels such as websites, mobile apps, social media, email, and online marketplaces for marketing, sales, customer service, and other business functions.

The goal of being digital-first is to enhance efficiency, agility, and customer engagement by embracing digital transformation and staying ahead in an increasingly digital world.



Digitalisation refers to the use of digital technologies to improve or enhance existing processes, systems, or operations. It involves integrating digital technologies into various aspects of business or society to make them more efficient, effective, and responsive to user needs. Digitalisation may include implementing digital tools, platforms, or solutions to automate manual tasks, streamline workflows, enhance communication, or create new digital products or services. The goal of digitalisation is to leverage digital technologies to drive innovation, productivity, and competitiveness.


Digitisation refers to the process of converting analogue information or processes into digital format. It involves transforming physical or manual data, documents, or processes into digital forms, such as scanning paper documents to create digital copies or converting analogue audio or video recordings into digital files. The goal of digitisation is to make information more accessible, searchable, and easier to store, manage, and transmit electronically.

Dual Provider

A telecommunications company that offers two main types of services or products. This could include offering both internet and mobile phone services, or internet and television services, for example.

Dual SIM

Dual SIM refers to a mobile device that has the capability to hold and use two SIM cards simultaneously. This feature allows users to have two separate phone numbers and accounts on a single device, effectively merging the functionality of two phones into one. Users can make and receive calls, send and receive messages, and access mobile data using either SIM card, offering flexibility and convenience for managing personal and business communications or using different networks for better coverage and cost savings.

Dual SIM phones are popular among users who travel frequently, have multiple phone numbers, or want to separate work and personal contacts on the same device.


EBITDA - Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortisation

EBITDA measures a company's operating performance that excludes interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortisation expenses. It provides a clearer view of the company's profitability from its core operations and is often used to compare the performance of companies within the same industry.

eKYC - Electronic Know Your Customer

eKYC refers to the digital or electronic process of verifying a customer's identity using electronic means, such as biometric authentication, digital signatures, and online verification methods. eKYC streamlines the KYC process by eliminating the need for physical paperwork and in-person verification, making it faster, more convenient, and more cost-effective for both customers and telecom operators.

eKYC solutions leverage digital technologies to securely capture and authenticate customer information, often in real-time, allowing telecom companies to onboard customers remotely and efficiently. This approach enhances customer experience, reduces administrative burdens, and improves compliance with regulatory requirements.


Embedded Connectivity

Embedded Connectivity involves integrating connectivity into an existing mobile application, regardless of industry, whether it's telecom, travel, or finance. This capability is made possible by eSIMs (digital SIMs), rendering physical SIM cards obsolete and eliminating associated hassles.

eSIM - Embedded SIM

eSIM, short for Embedded Subscriber Identity Module, is a digital SIM card embedded directly into a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, or wearable device. Unlike traditional physical SIM cards that are removable, eSIMs are integrated into the device's hardware and cannot be physically removed or swapped. Instead, users can activate and manage their eSIM profiles remotely, allowing them to connect to mobile networks and access cellular services without the need for a physical SIM card. eSIM technology offers greater flexibility, as users can easily switch between mobile carriers and plans, often with just a few taps on their device.

eSIM Profile

An eSIM profile is a digital representation of a subscriber's identity and mobile network subscription information stored on an eUICC.

The eSIM profile contains details which include IMSI, ICCID, security algorithms, and other configuration settings. Each eSIM profile is unique to the subscriber and the mobile network operator, providing a flexible and convenient way to manage mobile connectivity on compatible devices.

Users can download and activate eSIM profiles over-the-air (OTA) using a secure process called remote SIM provisioning (RSP).



eSIM-Only refers to mobile devices that don't have a physical SIM card slot and rely solely on embedded SIM (eSIM) technology for cellular connectivity. Users can activate cellular service and manage their mobile network subscriptions directly through the device's settings or a companion app without the need to insert or replace a physical SIM card.

eSIM-only devices offer advantages such as greater flexibility, as users can switch between mobile carriers and plans without needing a physical SIM card, and streamlined device design with no need for a SIM card slot. They are becoming increasingly popular in the market, especially for wearables, IoT devices, and certain models of smartphones and tablets.


eUICC - Embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card

eUICC refers to a hardware component embedded within a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, or IoT device, which is the platform for storing and managing multiple eSIM profiles. The eUICC provides the necessary infrastructure to enable remote provisioning and management of profiles over-the-air (OTA). This technology allows users to switch between different mobile network operators or subscribe to new networks without the need for physically swapping SIM cards.


FCF - Free Cash Flow

FCF represents the cash generated after accounting for capital expenditures and working capital requirements. It measures the amount of cash available to the company for distribution to shareholders, debt repayment, or further investments after covering necessary expenses to maintain or expand its business operations.

FUP - Fair Usage Policy

In the context of telecoms, a Fair Usage Policy (FUP) is a set of guidelines or limitations imposed by a service provider to ensure that all users have equitable access to network resources and services. FUPs are commonly applied to unlimited or high-data plans to prevent excessive usage by a small number of users from negatively impacting the experience of other subscribers or overloading the network infrastructure.

Under a Fair Usage Policy, service providers may set thresholds or usage caps for certain activities, such as data usage, voice calls, or SMS messaging, beyond which the user's service may be throttled, deprioritised, or subject to additional charges. These thresholds are typically defined in terms of data volume, usage frequency, or specific activities within a certain time period.


GM - Gross Margin

GM is a financial metric that measures the profitability of a company's products or services by calculating the percentage of revenue remaining after subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS). It reflects the efficiency of production or service delivery and indicates the company's ability to generate profits from its sales.

GSMA - Global System for Mobile Communications Association

The GSMA, or the Global System for Mobile Communications Association, is an industry organisation representing the interests of mobile network operators worldwide. It was formed in 1995 to support the development, deployment, and adoption of mobile telecommunications technologies and services.

The GSMA works collaboratively with mobile operators, device manufacturers, software developers, and other stakeholders to drive innovation, promote industry standards, and advocate for policies that support the growth of the mobile ecosystem.

The association focuses on areas such as spectrum allocation, network interoperability, roaming agreements, mobile security, and the development of new technologies like 5G and IoT. Additionally, the GSMA hosts industry events, conducts research, and provides resources and services to its members to facilitate collaboration and advancements within the mobile industry.


ICCID - Integrated Circuit Card Identifier

It's a unique serial number assigned to each SIM card, including eSIMs. The ICCID is typically printed on the physical SIM card or can be retrieved electronically from the device settings. Mobile network operators use this to identify and authenticate the SIM card when connecting to a network. It consists of up to 19 digits and is structured in a specific format defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The ICCID plays a crucial role in managing subscriber accounts, activating services, and tracking usage on mobile networks.

IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity

It's a unique identifier associated with a specific mobile subscriber on a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) or UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network. The IMSI is stored on the SIM card (or eSIM) and is used to uniquely identify and authenticate the subscriber when connecting to the mobile network.

The IMSI consists of three main parts:

  • Mobile Country Code (MCC): A three-digit code identifying the country where the subscriber's SIM card was issued.
  • Mobile Network Code (MNC): A two or three-digit code that identifies the mobile network operator within the country.
  • Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN): A variable-length number that uniquely identifies the subscriber within the mobile network.

Together, the MCC, MNC, and MSIN form the IMSI, which the mobile network uses to grant access to services, route calls and messages, and authenticate the subscriber's identity. The IMSI is transmitted to the network when a device attempts to connect, allowing the network to verify the subscriber's identity and authorise access to services.


In-App eSIM Provisiong

In-app eSIM provisioning is one method of remote SIM provisioning (RSP). It refers to the process of activating and managing eSIM (embedded Subscriber Identity Module) profiles directly within a mobile application, without the need for physical SIM cards or processes relying on QR codes. This streamlined approach offers convenience, flexibility, and better user experience (UX) compared to other RSP methods.

IoT - Internet of Things

IoT, or Internet of Things, refers to a network of interconnected devices, objects, or "things embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies that enable them to collect and exchange data over the Internet. These devices can range from everyday objects such as smart thermostats, wearable fitness trackers, and connected appliances to industrial machinery, vehicles, and infrastructure.

By gathering and sharing data in real-time, IoT devices can automate processes, monitor environments, improve efficiency, and enable new services and applications across various sectors, including healthcare, agriculture, transportation, and smart cities. The goal of IoT is to create a more connected and intelligent world where physical objects can interact with each other and humans in meaningful ways, enhancing productivity, convenience, and quality of life.


iSIM - Integrated SIM

iSIM, or Integrated SIM, refers to a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) that' i's integrated into a device's chipset or motherboard during manufacturing. This makes the SIM non-removable and tightly integrated with the device's hardware and software.

iSIM technology aims to provide a more compact and efficient solution for managing cellular connectivity while offering enhanced security features, such as tamper resistance and remote provisioning capabilities, allowing for secure and flexible management of cellular subscriptions.


ISP - Internet Service Provider

An ISP, or Internet Service Provider, provides users with access to the Internet. They offer various types of internet connections, such as dial-up, DSL, cable, fiber-optic, and wireless, allowing individuals, businesses, and other entities to connect their devices to the internet. Users pay a fee to their ISP for internet access, usually on a monthly basis, and may have the option to choose from different plans with varying speeds, data limits, and additional features.


KYC - Know Your Customer

KYC is a regulatory requirement in the telecommunications industry (and other sectors) aimed at verifying the identity of customers to prevent fraud, money laundering, and other illicit activities. Telecom operators are required to collect certain information from customers, such as their name, address, date of birth, and government-issued identification documents, to establish their identity and eligibility for services. KYC helps telecom companies ensure compliance with legal and regulatory standards while protecting against financial and reputational risks.


LC/NC - Low-Code/No-Code

Low-Code/No-Code (LC/NC) refers to a software development approach that enables users to create applications with minimal manual coding, using visual interfaces and pre-built components instead. In a Low-Code environment, developers use graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and drag-and-drop tools to design and configure application components, workflows, and business logic without writing extensive lines of code.

Similarly, in a No-Code environment, individuals with little to no coding experience can build functional applications using intuitive, point-and-click interfaces and templates provided by the platform. LC/NC platforms abstract away much of the complexity of traditional coding, allowing users to focus on solving business problems and delivering value quickly.


LPA - Local Profile Assistant

LPA is a software component embedded within devices that manages eSIM profiles locally. It allows users to select, activate, and switch between available mobile network subscriptions directly on their devices without relying on external servers or network connections.


M&A - Mergers and Acquisitions

M&As refer to strategic transactions where companies combine their operations or assets through either a merger or acquisition. These transactions are aimed at achieving various strategic objectives, such as expanding market share, diversifying product offerings, gaining access to new technologies or customer segments, or achieving cost synergies.

MNO - Mobilie Network Operator

An MNO, or Mobile Network Operator, is a telecommunications company that owns and manages the infrastructure necessary for providing mobile services to users. This includes radio spectrum, cell towers, and other network elements for wireless communication like calls, texts, and internet access. MNOs offer services directly to users or may provide wholesale services to MVNOs for resale.

Mobile Data

Mobile data refers to the transmission of digital information over cellular networks, enabling users to access the internet and other online services on their mobile devices. This includes activities such as browsing the web, using mobile applications, streaming multimedia content, and sending/receiving emails. Mobile data is transmitted wirelessly through radio frequencies and is measured in units of data usage, such as megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB), often subject to data plans and usage limits set by mobile network operators.

MVNE - Mobilie Virtual Network Enabler

An MVNE, or Mobile Virtual Network Enabler, is a service provider that offers infrastructure and support services to MVNOs to enter the mobile telecommunications market without having to build their own network infrastructure. They provide services such as network connectivity, billing, customer support, and operational support systems, allowing MVNOs to focus on marketing and branding their services.

MVNO - Mobile Virtual Network Operator

An MVNO, or Mobile Virtual Network Operator, is a company that offers mobile communication services to customers without owning the underlying network infrastructure. Instead, MVNOs lease network access from MNOs and then resell it under their brand. This allows MVNOs to provide mobile services, such as calls, texts, and data, without the need to invest in building and maintaining their own network infrastructure.


Net Debt to EBITDA Ratio

This ratio compares a company's net debt (total debt minus cash and cash equivalents) to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortisation) and helps assess its ability to repay its debt obligations. A lower ratio indicates a stronger financial position and a lower risk of default.

Network Slicing

Network slicing is a concept in telecoms that involves partitioning a physical network infrastructure into multiple virtual networks, each tailored to specific use cases, applications, or customer requirements. This virtualisation allows network operators to allocate dedicated resources, such as bandwidth, latency, and security parameters, to different slices of the network, effectively creating isolated, customisable network environments within a shared infrastructure.

Network slicing is a fundamental enabler of 5G technology, as it allows for the flexible allocation of resources to accommodate the diverse requirements of emerging applications such as the Internet of Things (IoT), autonomous vehicles, augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR).



Network-agnostic refers to a system, device, or application that's designed to operate independently of specific network protocols or technologies. Being network-agnostic allows for greater flexibility, interoperability, and compatibility with diverse network environments, enabling seamless communication and connectivity regardless of the underlying network infrastructure.

NPS - Net Promoter Score

NPS is a key performance indicator used to measure customer loyalty and satisfaction with a company or brand.

The NPS is based on a single question: "How likely is it that you would recommend [company/brand/product] to a friend or colleague?" Customers respond on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 being "not at all likely" and 10 being "extremely likely." Based on their responses, customers are classified into three categories: Promoters (score 9-10), Passives (score 7-8), and Detractors (score 0-6).


OCS - Online Charging System

OCS is a component within a telecommunications network that handles real time charging and billing functions for services such as voice calls, data usage, and value-added services. The OCS is responsible for monitoring usage, applying charges based on predefined tariffs or rate plans, and updating subscriber account balances in real time. This system plays a crucial role in enabling operators to accurately charge customers for the services they consume, facilitating revenue generation and ensuring billing accuracy.

OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer

An OEM is a company that produces components, parts, or products that are used in another company's end product. In telecoms, these may include components such as routers, switches, base stations, antennas, handsets, and other network infrastructure equipment. Telecom OEMs often work with network operators or service providers to develop custom solutions tailored to their specific needs or to provide off-the-shelf products that meet industry standards.

OPM - Operating Profit Margin

OPM measures the profitability of a company's core operations by calculating the percentage of revenue that remains as operating profit after deducting operating expenses. It indicates how efficiently a company generates profit from its primary business activities.

Orchestration Layer

Orchestration Layer refers to a software component or platform that facilitates the automated coordination, provisioning, and management of various resources and services within a network environment. This layer acts as a central control mechanism, enabling seamless integration and coordination of network elements, such as virtualised functions, applications, and infrastructure components.

By abstracting complexity and automating workflows, the orchestration layer streamlines operations, optimises resource utilisation, and enables rapid deployment of services, contributing to increased agility and efficiency in network management.


OSS - Operations Support System

OSS refers to a set of software applications and tools used by telecommunications service providers to manage their network operations and provide support for various functions. Such as network monitoring, provisioning, inventory management, fault management, and performance analysis. OSS helps telecom operators efficiently deploy, operate, and maintain their network infrastructure, ensuring optimal performance, reliability, and quality of service for subscribers.

OTA - Over-The-Air

OTA stands for Over-The-Air and refers to wireless communication methods for remote device provisioning. OTA technology enables the transmission of data, including software updates, configuration settings, or firmware upgrades, to devices without requiring physical connections.

For example, in the context of eSIM (embedded SIM), OTA refers to the method used to remotely manage and update eSIM profiles on compatible devices. Unlike traditional SIM cards that are physically inserted into a device, eSIM profiles are provisioned digitally and can be updated or changed without replacing a physical card.


OTT - Over-The-Top

OTT stands for Over-The-Top, and it refers to content, services, or applications delivered over the Internet directly to consumers, bypassing traditional distribution channels such as cable or satellite television providers. OTT content is typically accessed through internet-connected devices like smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, and streaming media players. Examples of OTT services include streaming video platforms like Netflix, Hulu, and Disney+, as well as messaging apps like WhatsApp and social media platforms like Instagram. OTT has revolutionised the way people consume media and communicate. It offers greater flexibility, convenience, and choice in accessing content and services anytime, anywhere.


PoS - Point of Sale

PoS refers to the location or device where a retail transaction is completed between a merchant and a customer.


Post-paid is one of the billing methods used by telecom companies to charge customers for their usage of telecommunication services, such as voice calls, text messages, and data.

In a post-paid plan, customers typically sign a contract or agreement with the telecom company, committing to pay the billed amount at the end of each billing cycle. Post-paid plans often include monthly allowances for voice calls, text messages, and data, with additional charges applicable for usage beyond the allocated allowance.

Post-paid plans cater to users who prefer the convenience of using services without worrying about running out of credit. Customers sign a contract or agreement with the telecom company when subscribing to a post-paid plan, committing to pay the billed amount at the end of each billing cycle.



Pre-paid is one of the billing methods used by telecom companies to charge customers for their usage of telecommunication services, such as voice calls, text messages, and data.

In a pre-paid plan, customers pay for telecommunication services upfront. Typically, customers purchase a pre-paid SIM card or plan, which comes with a predetermined amount of credit or a validity period. They can then utilise the services until the credit is depleted or the validity period expires.

Pre-paid plans offer users control over their spending, as they can only consume services for which they have already paid.


QoS - Quality of Service

QoS, or Quality of Service, is a measure of the performance and reliability of a telecommunications network or service. It encompasses various factors such as bandwidth, latency, packet loss, and jitter, which collectively determine the user experience.

QoS mechanisms are implemented to prioritise and manage network resources, ensuring that critical applications receive sufficient bandwidth and minimal delay while maintaining acceptable levels of service for all users. QoS plays a vital role in ensuring consistent and satisfactory performance for real-time applications like voice and video calls, online gaming, and streaming media.


Quad Provider

A telecommunications company that offers four main types of services or products. This often includes internet, mobile phone, television, and landline phone services, providing customers with a comprehensive range of telecommunications options.


RAN - Radio Access Network

RAN is part of a mobile telecommunications system that connects individual devices, such as mobile phones or tablets, to the core network through radio connections. RAN encompasses the infrastructure of base stations, antennas, and other equipment that transmit and receive radio signals to provide wireless coverage and enable communication between mobile devices and the network.

RAN technology is essential for enabling mobile voice and data services, including cellular calls, internet access, and multimedia messaging, by establishing connections between mobile devices and the telecommunications network.


RSP - Remote SIM provisioning

RSP provides a seamless experience for users, enabling them to effortlessly select mobile networks, activate services, and switch between mobile carriers and plans without the need to perform physical SIM swaps. It enhances the overall flexibility and convenience for users while reducing the hassle of traditional SIM management.

RSP is organised around 4 elements: the SM-DP+ (Subscription Manager - Data Preparation +), the SM-DS (Subscription Manager - Discovery Server), the LPA (Local Profile Assistant) and the eUICC.

Additionally, RSP also streamlines operations for mobile operators. By enabling them to manage SIM cards remotely, mobile operators can offer more efficient customer service and optimise their business processes.


RLAH - Roam Like at Home

RLAH stands for "Roam Like at Home." It refers to a regulation introduced by the European Union that allows mobile phone users to use their voice, SMS, and data allowances within other EU countries without incurring additional roaming charges.

Essentially, RLAH enables users to enjoy the same rates and services they have in their home country while travelling within the European Union. This regulation aims to promote connectivity, eliminate barriers to communication, and enhance the user experience for EU citizens travelling within the EU.



Roaming refers to the ability of a mobile device to connect to and use the services of a cellular network outside of its home network coverage area. When a mobile subscriber travels to a location where their home network operator does not have coverage, the subscriber's device can roam onto another operator's network that has a roaming agreement in place with their home operator.

While roaming, the subscriber can make and receive calls, send and receive text messages, and access mobile data services as if they were within their home network coverage area. However, roaming can incur additional charges, which can vary depending on the roaming agreements between operators and the subscriber's mobile service plan.


ROCE - Return on Capital Employed

ROCE measures the efficiency and profitability of a company's capital investments by comparing its earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) to its capital employed. It indicates how effectively a company generates profits from its capital investments and is often used to measure managerial performance.


SAS-SM - Security Accreditation Scheme for Subscription Management

SAS-SM refers to a security framework designed to ensure the integrity and security of subscription management platforms in relation to eSIMs. These platforms are responsible for managing the lifecycle of eSIM profiles, including activation, provisioning, and management. The Security Accreditation Scheme establishes standards and guidelines for assessing the security of such platforms to protect against potential vulnerabilities and ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of subscriber data.

SDK - Software Development Kit

SDK is a set of tools, libraries, documentation, and sample code provided by a software company or platform to assist developers in building applications for a specific platform, operating system, or programming language. SDKs typically include resources and functionalities that simplify the development process, such as APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) for accessing platform features, pre-built components for common tasks, debugging tools, and integration with development environments. Developers use SDKs to streamline the development process, reduce time-to-market, and ensure compatibility with the target platform or ecosystem.

SIM Card - Subscriber Identity Module card

A SIM card, or Subscriber Identity Module card, is a small, removable smart card that's inserted into mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets, and IoT devices, to authenticate the user and connect to a mobile network. The SIM card contains unique information, including the subscriber's identity and authentication key, which allows the device to communicate with the mobile network operator's infrastructure. It enables users to make calls, send text messages, and access mobile data services on their devices. SIM cards come in various sizes, including standard SIM, micro SIM, and nano SIM, to fit different device types.

SM-DP - Subscription Manager Data Preparation

SM-DP is responsible for preparing the data loaded onto eSIMs before it's provisioned to devices. This data includes information about the mobile network subscription, such as network credentials, authentication keys, and service profiles. The SM-DP ensures that eSIM profiles are correctly configured and personalised according to the user's subscription plan and network requirements.

SM-DP+ - Subscription Manager Data Preparation Plus

SM-DP+ builds upon the functionality of SM-DP by offering additional features and capabilities. These may include enhanced security measures, support for advanced network services, or extended management capabilities for eSIM profiles. SM-DP+ is designed to provide a more comprehensive and robust solution for eSIM data preparation, catering to the evolving needs of mobile network operators and service providers.

SM-DS - Subscription Manager - Discovery Server

The SM-DS provides a means for an SM-DP+ to reach the eUICC without having to know which network the device is connected to. This feature is important as devices can be connected using different access networks with different addresses. The SM-DS overcomes this by allowing SM-DP+ to post alerts to a secure noticeboard and for devices to extract those alerts.

It notifies the LPA when Profile data is available for download to the eUICC. Notifications are sent from the SM-DP+ to the SM-DS. The device LPA polls the SM-DS for notifications when required (supporting the “pull” model). Polling frequency is determined by the eUICC state and by end-user actions.


SM-SR - Subscription Manager - Secure Routing

The SM-SR is responsible for managing the status of Profiles on the eUICC (enable, disable, delete). It also secures the communications link between the eUICC and SM-DP for the delivery of operator Profiles.

SMS - Short Message Service

SMS stands for Short Message Service, a communication protocol used to send text messages between mobile devices. SMS messages are typically limited to 160 characters and are transmitted over cellular networks, allowing users to send and receive brief text-based communications.


Spectrum refers to the range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used for transmitting signals in telecommunications. It encompasses various frequencies, from low-frequency radio waves to high-frequency microwaves, each allocated for specific purposes such as broadcasting, mobile communications, and wireless networking. The allocation and regulation of spectrum are crucial for ensuring efficient and interference-free communication across different wireless devices and services.


Triple Provider

A telecommunications company that offers three main types of services or products. This typically includes a combination of internet, mobile phone, and television services.


UI - User Interface

UI, or User Interface, refers to the visual elements, design, and layout of a digital product or system that users interact with. UI design focuses on creating interfaces that are visually appealing, intuitive to use, and efficient in guiding users to accomplish their tasks. It includes elements such as buttons, menus, icons, typography, and colour schemes. A well-designed UI enhances the overall user experience by making it easy for users to navigate the interface, understand the information presented, and interact with the product effectively.

UICC - Universal Integrated Circuit Card

UICC is a smart card used in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to securely store subscriber identity and authentication information for accessing mobile networks. The UICC typically contains a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card, which authenticates the subscriber to the mobile network, stores contact information, and manages access to mobile services. It also supports additional applications, such as secure payment systems and storage of personal data. The UICC is vital in enabling mobile communication and facilitating secure transactions on mobile devices.

User Onboarding

User onboarding is the process of guiding new users through the initial steps of using a product or service to help them understand its features, functionalities, and benefits. The goal of user onboarding is to ensure a smooth and positive experience for new users, helping them to quickly get started and achieve their desired outcomes with the product or service. Effective user onboarding can increase user engagement, satisfaction, and retention.

UX - User Experience

UX stands for User Experience. It refers to the overall experience of a person when interacting with a product or service, especially in terms of how easy or pleasing it is to use. UX encompasses various aspects of design, usability, accessibility and functionality, to make that experience intuitive, enjoyable and effective, aiming to meet user needs and preferences while driving engagement and satisfaction.


VAS - Value-Added Serivces

In the context of telecommunications, VAS refers to additional services beyond standard voice and data communication that telecom operators offer to enhance their customer's experience and provide added value.

These services can include features such as mobile gaming, on-demand music or video subscriptions, and online storage. VAS may also include productivity tools, security features, and customised offerings tailored to specific customer needs or preferences.

The goal of VAS is to differentiate telecom operators from competitors, increase customer satisfaction, and generate additional revenue streams.



In telecommunications, voice refers to the transmission of audio signals over a network, allowing individuals to communicate verbally with each other. This can include traditional phone calls made over landline or mobile networks, as well as voice-based communication applications like VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) services.

VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol

VoIP is a technology that enables voice communication and multimedia sessions over the Internet, rather than traditional telephone networks. VoIP converts voice signals into digital data packets, which are transmitted over the Internet using IP (Internet Protocol) networks. This allows users to make phone calls, send voice messages, and engage in other forms of communication using internet-connected devices such as smartphones, computers, or VoIP-enabled desk phones.

VoIP offers cost savings, flexibility, and a wide range of features compared to traditional telephone services, making it increasingly popular for both personal and business communication needs."


VR - Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality is a computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional environment that users can interact with in a seemingly realistic or physical way. VR technology typically involves a headset or goggles that immerse users in a virtual world, blocking out the physical surroundings.

In telecoms, VR technology can be utilised for virtual meetings, remote collaboration, and immersive entertainment. For instance, telecom companies can offer VR-based teleconferencing solutions that allow users to meet and interact in virtual spaces or provide VR content streaming services for users to enjoy immersive entertainment experiences.


White Label

White label refers to a business strategy where a product or service created by one company is rebranded and sold by another under their own label. Essentially, the white label product is unbranded or "generic," allowing the reselling company to customise it with their branding and marketing materials. This approach enables businesses to quickly and cost-effectively offer a wide range of products or services without investing in extensive development or manufacturing processes.

Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelity

Wi-Fi, short for Wireless Fidelity, is a wireless networking technology that allows electronic devices to connect to a local area network (LAN) wirelessly, typically using the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz radio frequency bands. Wi-Fi enables devices such as smartphones, laptops, tablets, and IoT devices to access the internet, communicate with each other, and transfer data without the need for physical wired connections. It operates based on IEEE 802.11 standards and relies on wireless access points or routers to create wireless networks that devices can connect to.

Wi-Fi networks are commonly used in homes, offices, public spaces, and other environments to provide wireless internet access and connectivity.

Wi-Fi Hotspot

A Wi-Fi hotspot refers to a physical location or access point that provides wireless internet access to users within its vicinity. It typically consists of a wireless router or access point connected to an internet service provider's network, allowing users with Wi-Fi-enabled devices to connect to the internet wirelessly.

Wi-Fi hotspots are commonly found in public areas such as cafes, airports, hotels, libraries, and parks, as well as in private settings such as homes and businesses.

Users can connect to a Wi-Fi hotspot by selecting the network from their device's list of available networks and entering any required credentials or authentication information. Once connected, users can access the internet and other network resources provided by the hotspot."



5G is the fifth-generation wireless technology standard for cellular networks, succeeding 4G LTE. It's a new global wireless standard which promises significantly faster data speeds, lower latency, greater capacity, higher peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience for more users. It delivers higher performance and improved efficiency, empowering new user experiences and connecting new industries.